Changing definitionsof leadership, cont’d….
1950’s: “...the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts towards goal setting and goal achievement.” (Stogdill, 1950/1958)
1960’s: “…acts by persons which influence other persons in a shared direction.” (Seeman, 1960)
Many of the researchers focussing on groups saw leadership as a set of facilitative behaviors: “More specifically, leadership consists of such actions by group members as those which aid in setting group goals, moving the group toward its goals, improving the quality of interactions among the members, building the cohesiveness of the group, or making resources available to the group. In principle, leadership may be performed by one or many members of the group.” (Cartwright & Zander, 1953, page 538, quoted in Rost, page 51)
Other researchers at the time emphasized the realization of shared goals as a key element in leadership: Leadership is “…the process of arranging a situation so that various members of a group, including the leader, can achieve common goals with maximum economy and a minimum of time and work.” (Bellows, 1959, page 14, quoted in Rost, page 51)
1960’s: “Leadership is concerned with the transformation of doubts into psychological grounds of cooperative common action.” (N.E. Long, 1963, page 126, quoted in Rost, page 54)
In 1967, writing from a political perspective, Edinger suggested the following: “Leadership is a position within society which is defined by the ability of the incumbent to guide and structure the collective behavior patterns of some or all of its members. …It is at all times relational, interpersonal, and is based upon inequality of influence…” (Edinger, 1967, page 15, in Rost, page 54)
E.E. Jennings highlighted traits of risk-taking and initiative (cont’d next page)