Changing definitionsof leadership, cont’d….
1970’s: “…a process in which an individual takes initiative to assist a group to move towards the production goals that are acceptable to maintain the group, and to dispose the needs of individuals within the group that compelled them to join it.” (Boles and Davenport, 1975)
[Jennings, cont’d from previous page] in his definition: “The essential difference between a leader and an executive is the degree of personal initiative and personal risk that such initiative involves. [It is difficult to apply leadership] to those people who reduce risk considerably by attempting to move the group in a direction it has already taken…” (Jennings, 1960, page 16, quoted in Rost, page 56)
1970’s: Moloney clarified leadership in relation to administration or management in stating, “It is important to understand that leadership is not a synonym for either administration or management. Leadership is a process whereby the leader can influence others to perform beyond those activities commanded by individuals in formal authority positions.” (Moloney, 1979, page 11, in Rost, page 59)
Jacobs, a researcher whose work was not popularly accepted, developed an exchange theory of leadership that also was careful to distinguish among leadership, power, and authority. “Communication skills are more important in leadership as here defined, than in influence attempts based on either power or authority, because its essence it the development of a new state of knowledge, belief, or attitude in the target of the influence attempt…In the present system, the key distinction in the exercise of influence through leadership is the recognition that the influence recipient has the option of deciding for or against compliance with the leader’s wishes, without incurring coercive penalties.” (Jacobs, 1970, page 232, in Rost, page 60)